Fraction instruction for students with mathematics disabilities: Comparing two teaching sequences

Butler, F. M., Miller, S. P., Crehan, K., Babbitt, B., & Pierce, T.
The study compared the effectiveness of concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) and representational-abstract (RA) instructional sequences in teaching mathematics to middle- school students with mild to moderate disabilities. Students in the CRA group used concrete manipulatives and students in the RA group used representational drawings. Participating students received 10 scripted mathematics lessons in either the CRA or RA approach.
Common Core State Standards: 
Model with Mathematics
Reason Abstractly
Use Appropriate Tools Strategically
Instructional Strategies: 
Visual Representations
Supporting Struggling Students: 

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