The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities

Troia, G. A., & Graham, S.
Using a highly explicit and teacher-directed instructional strategy, this study examined the impact of three planning strategies (goal setting, brainstorming, and organizing) on writing outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). The effectiveness of the planning strategies was compared to process-writing instruction. Instruction was conducted in groups of two, and total instructional time ranged from 9 to 11 hours.
Common Core State Standards: 
Instructional Strategies: 

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