Fluency is reading with accuracy, speed, and understanding. To read aloud with expression requires an understanding of the text’s meaning beyond simple decoding of individual words. Students who struggle with fluency may read slowly, in a monotone, ignoring punctuation, or in choppy start-and-stop rhythms. Often, such readers have difficulty monitoring understanding and self-correcting. Support these students with tools that allow for repeated readings and performance, and model expressive reading with audiobooks, e-books, and your own live readings.

View an Introductory Presentation on Fluency Strategies

Click here for a version of this slideshow which can be used with a screen-reader and is 508 Compliant.

Read the Complete Fluency Teaching Strategy Guide

Students need differentiated instruction to understand what is involved in fluency, strategies to develop fluency, and many opportunities to practice. Technology tools that foster marking text and making video and audio recordings can support the strategies described below.


  1. Provide Clear Explanations
  2. Give Students Strategies and Models
  3. Provide Opportunities for Practice