The study employed a randomized controlled trial design to examine the effectiveness of using student-completed or researcher-completed graphic organizers on students’ comprehension of expository text. The intervention was given 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. For the intervention groups, the researcher provided graphic organizer frames adapted from the Framing Routine (Ellis, 1999) and content materials from the science and social studies text.
Using graphic organizers to improve at-risk students’ reading comprehension of expository text
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