The study compared the effectiveness of concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) and representational-abstract (RA) instructional sequences in teaching mathematics to middle- school students with mild to moderate disabilities. Students in the CRA group used concrete manipulatives and students in the RA group used representational drawings. Participating students received 10 scripted mathematics lessons in either the CRA or RA approach.
Fraction instruction for students with mathematics disabilities: Comparing two teaching sequences
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